Research Papers

Effects of Healing Touch in Clinical Practice

Hands-on healing and energy-based interventions have been found in cultures throughout history around the world. These complementary therapies, rooted in ancient Eastern healing practices, are becoming mainstream. Healing Touch, a biofield therapy that arose in the nursing field in the late 1980s, is used in a variety of settings (i.e., pain centers, surgical settings, and private practices) with reported benefits (i.e., decreased anxiety, pain, and depressive behaviors; increased relaxation and a sense of well-being). However, clinical trial data concerning the effectiveness of Healing Touch have not been evaluated using a systematic, evidence-based approach. Thus, this systematic review is aimed at critically evaluating the data from randomized clinical trials examining the clinical efficacy of Healing Touch as a supportive care modality for any medical condition.
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The Importance of Early Phase Research

Early phase research in complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is especially important because of the large influence it has on the subsequent expenditure of money and effort in particular areas of CAM therapies. The culture of biomedical research has, however, blurred the distinction between early and late-phase research, and this has distorted the very distinct aims of these two activities. The purpose of this paper is to reaffirm the critical role of early phase CAM research and to encourage CAM researchers to value and conduct early phase studies for their proper purposes.
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DEVELOPMENT OF STANDARD PROCEDURE FOR ANALYSIS OF NATURAL ENVIRONMENTAL OBJECTS BASED ON THE EPC/GDV METHOD

This work is aimed on development of a standard procedure for measurement of different environmental objects using the EPC/GDV method. During investigation several destabilizing factors influencing the results of EPC/GDV measurements were found. These factors were analyzed and ways of overcoming them have been formulated. We have developed standard recommendations and a procedure for conducting experiments on EPC/GDV that ensure acquiring stable and adequate results. An algorithm of statistical and mathematical processing of obtained data has been developed.
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Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) Technique

In the Living Energy Universe, Drs. Gary Schwartz and Linda Russek, Directors of the Human Energy Systems Laboratory at The University of Arizona, stated “it is possible to organize the entire universe in terms of nested levels of systems, from the micro to the macro. Nested means that one level is inside another level.“ (1999, p.160). The concept of a system requires that the components be connected energetically. Energy can be thought of as the force that maintains each system and also enables it to emerge and evolve into a higher level system.
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CLASSIFICATION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF CORONAS USING PARAMETRIZATION OF IMAGES AND MACHINE LEARNING

We describe the development of computer classifiers for various types of coronas. In particular, we were interested to develop an algorithm for detection of coronas of people in altered states of consciousness (two-classes problem). Such coronas are known to have rings (double coronas), special branch-like structure of streamers and/or curious spots. Besides detecting altered states of consciousness we were interested also to classify various types of coronas (six-classes problem). We used several approaches to parametrization of images: statistical approach, principal component analysis, association rules and GDV software approach extended with several additional parameters. For the development of the classifiers we used various machine learning algorithms: learning of decision trees, naïve Bayesian classifier, K-nearest neighbors classifier, Support vector machine, neural networks, and Kernel Density classifier. We compared results of computer algorithms with the human expert’s accuracy (about 77% for the two-classes problem and about 60% for the six-classes problem). Results show that computer algorithms can achieve the same or even better accuracy than that of human experts (best results were up to 85% for the two-classes problem and up to 65% for the six-classes problem).
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Application of Electrophoton Capture (EPC) Analysis Based on Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) Technique in Medicine

Objectives: To evaluate the scale and scope of implementing EPC analysis based on gas discharge visualization technique in diverse medical applications and psycho-physiology; to identify the range of applications in medicine; and to show in which areas the procedure can be useful to health professionals. Design: Systematic review. Methods: The database included papers published in peer-reviewed journals, proceedings of the international scientific congress “Science, Information, Spirit" (2003-2007), papers from the International Union of Medical and Applied Bioelectrography (IUMAB) database, proceedings of other conferences devoted to EPC or GDV, bioelectrography and biophotonics. Search restrictions were human subjects, English or Russian language, and publication date from 2003 up to the present. All randomized controlled studies (RCTs) and systematic research reports (SRRs) were evaluated using Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) and Jadad checklists. Results: The search yielded 136 papers addressing 4 different fields of medical and psychophysiological applications of EPC (GDV). Among them were 26 SRR, 19 RCT, 18 case reports or case series, and 13 cohort studies. 19 SRRs and 13 RCTs were rated “high” on the two conventional checklists.
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Monitoring Energy Levels during Treatment with GDV Technique

The general field of energy medicine is growing strongly but is still in great need of reliable monitoring instruments to assess the relative energetic state of humans with respect to a healthy/pathology ratio. It is therefore quite natural that commercial devices for evaluating the condition of the meridian energy state would be seriously considered by those involved in CAM. In this paper, we report on experimental results using ElectroPhotonic Imaging (EPI) technique, based on Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) Device, a sophisticated modern-day version of Kirlian photography. Specifics addressing the effectiveness of its application, ability to estimate appropriate dynamics and parameters of this disease process, and assessment of various therapies' effectiveness as measured by EPI technique are reviewed. Presented clinical results demonstrate that parameters of EPI-grams reliably differ for practically healthy people and patients with chronic abdominal pathology and depend on the gender and age of patients. The parameters of EPI-grams are connected with the functional status of the organism and, to a certain extent, reflect the severity of the somatic state of patients with abdominal pathology. The parameters of EPI-grams reliably change in response to the operative trauma, and their dynamics depend on the severity of the somatic state of patient, which allows using the technique for functional monitoring of patients in postoperative period, as well as for the assessment of the operative stress. The ElectroPhotonic Imaging technique is mostly advisable for the dynamic assessment of the functional state of patient in perioperative period.
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Bio-electrographic Method for Preventive Health Care

Bio-electrographical analyses comprising of electro-photonic emission of human fingertips has significant dependence on human bioresponses. The routine bio-responses are affected in response to a disease, drug treatment or environment. Comparison between the normal and the diseaseor “abnormal” state of bio-electrographic data could provide a faster and reliable alternative to current preventive health care methods and practices. A dataset of individual values of (1) integral area of electro-photonic emission (IA) (2) activation coefficient (AC) and (3) level of integral entropy (IE) was generated by acquiring electro-photonic emission of human fingertips of 130 participants who were recruited randomly among the residents of Mississippi and mean values were calculated. A comparative analyses of the dataset populated heavily with healthy participants with that of participants with altered bio-responses (hormone imbalance and smoking) has shown that such focused bio-electrographic datasets can be used as a valuable tool in preventive health care management.
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Review of Contemporary Biofield Measures including GDV: Implications for Energy Medicine and Spiritual Healing

With the development of sensitive and reliable biosensors and bioamplifiers it is possible to record bioelectromagnetic signals that are sometimes referred to as “subtle energy measures” and “biofields.” This paper reviews research from the Human Energy Systems Laboratory at the University of Arizona documenting the measurement of bioelectromagnetic signals that vary from low frequencies (electrostatic body-motion effects, electrocardiograms and electroencephalograms) to high frequencies (12 giga-hertz microwave signals, high frequency X rays, and gamma rays). Both intrapersonal and interpersonal biofield interactions are discussed. Research on the subjective and behavioral detection of biofields is also reviewed. New data using a coronal visualization discharge system is presented that documents possible effects of human intention on physical-chemical properties of water. Implications for developing new biomagnetic field measurement technologies using the MRI are briefly considered, and an energy systems framework for integrating bioelectromagnetics with spiritual healing is proposed.
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HEALING EXPERIMENTS ASSESSED WITH ELECTROPHOTONIC CAMERA

During a workshop demonstrating Electrophotonic Imaging based on the Gas Discharge Visualization technique, a series of experiments were conducted using Reconnective Healing, group intention focused on effecting the energy of a vial of water, and a novel use of a didgeridoo for sound therapy. The EPC/GDV techniques show the effects of the healing and group intention activities. In addition, the ambient energetic activity of the workshop room was monitored during various eras, using the new antenna device that has been added to the Electrophotonic Imaging/Gas Discharge Visualization camera system. Interesting variation in the ambient energy was observed among the various eras with different workshop activities.
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Digital High-Voltage Electrophotographic Measures of the Fingertips of Subjects Preand Post-Qigong

Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore how performing qigong influences certain measurable aspects of the human biofield; namely, various calculated parameters of finger corona discharge patterns produced by high-voltage electrophotography. Methods: The Gas Discharge Visualization (GDV) camera was used to assess subjects before and after performing Dayan (wild goose) qigong in workshop settings. Sixteen adults (48–80 years old), seven diagnosed with chronic disease, were studied. Subjects ranged from qigong novices to those having had 8 years of practice. Measurements were made on all ten fingertips of 16 subjects pre- and post-qigong. The patterns of light emitted from the subjects’ fingertips were digitally recorded and computer analysed. Parameters including normalised area, brightness, density, fractality form coefficient, fractality dimension, and right- and left-hand integrals were calculated and statistically compared. Results: The uniformity of the density of the circles of light emitted from the fingertips increased post-qigong. A trend was observed for the variability in the fractal form coefficient to decrease post-qigong. Subjects with chronic health problems increased in fractal dimension post-qigong, while those without health problems showed a decrease. There was a trend for the light emitted by the fingertips of qigong-experienced subjects to decrease in brightness, whereas inexperienced subjects had increased brightness. The right integral increased post-qigong in experienced subjects, whereas the left integral increased in inexperienced subjects.
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SCIENTIFIC ANALYSIS OF THE HUMAN AURA

The dominant biomedical paradigm that is the foundation of conventional Western medicine has had only limited success. Its Human Genome Project showed that less than 40,000 genes make up a human being (Claverie, 2001), even less than the number of genes in a grain of rice. Some key scientists question whether this approach is sufficient to account for all the information in a human being (Strohman, 1993). Additionally, this paradigm is very limited toward understanding healing and the modus operandi of many types of alternative therapies.
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Measuring Human Energy Field Revolutionary Instrument to reveal Energy Fields of Human and Nature

Human Energy Field (HEF) – is the most sensitive reflection of physical, emotional and, in some cases, spiritual conditions of a person. We take measurements from 10 fingers of both hands and using sophisticated software create an image of HEV. The principle is based on connection of fingers with different organs and systems of the body by Chinese energy meridians. This idea was firstly proposed by Dr Voll in Germany, later developed by Dr Mandel either in Germany, and then clinically verified and corrected by a team of Dr Korotkov in Russia. So the image which we create in GDV instrument is based on ideas of Traditional Chinese Medicine and verified by 15 years of clinical experience by hundreds of medical doctors with many thousands of patients. GDV is certified as a medical instrument in Russia and Europe. FDA certification in the USA is under way. It gives you information of your Energy Field and allows to see its day-today transformation and the influence of different situations and stimulus to your HEF and hence, to your condition.
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Evaluation of biofield treatment dose and distance in a model of cancer cell death.

OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the potential influence of biofield treatment on cultured human cancer cells and whether such influence was affected by varying the duration of the treatment (dose) or the distance between the biofield practitioner and the target cells. DESIGN: Biofield treatment dosage was assessed from a short distance (0.25 meters) in three independent experiments involving 1, 2, or 5 treatments, along with another set of three independent and comparable mock experiments. Biofield treatment distance was assessed at 0.25, 25, and ∼ 2000 meters involving two treatments in three independent experiments along with another set of three mock experiments. INTERVENTION: Biofield treatments were delivered by a highly acclaimed biofield practitioner with the intention of diminishing growth of the cells or inducing cancer-cell death. OUTCOME MEASURE: Cell viability was quantified 20 hours after treatments, using a spectrophotometric assay for live-cell counting. The dependent measure for each experiment was the log ratio of the cell viability values of treated samples (biofield or mock) over the values of untreated control samples. RESULTS: A trend of decreasing cell viability with increasing biofield dose was evident in the first set of experiments assessing dose-response; however, no such effect was evident in the second set of experiments evaluating biofield treatment distance. Mock experiments yielded relatively stable viability ratios in both sets of experiments. Linear regression analysis and hypothesis testing of the data taken as a whole did not yield statistical significance at p<0.05.
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Effect of biofield therapy in the human brain

OBJECTIVES: The effects of Okada Purifying Therapy (OPT), a form of subtle energy (biofield) therapy that originated in Japan, were investigated. Electroencephalograms and the Profile of Mood States scores were measured using a crossover design during OPT and placebo sessions. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen (19) healthy Japanese adults (mean age±standard deviation: 40.8±11.2 years; 10 females) with no previous experience of biofield therapy participated in this study. METHODS: Each session lasted 15 minutes. A single-blind, randomized design with a protocol consisting of regular cycles with eyes open followed by eyes closed was used. The power spectral value was calculated in θ (4.0-7.9 Hz), α (8.0-12.9 Hz), and β (13.0-29.9 Hz) frequency ranges. RESULTS: The power spectral value of the α band at F(p1), F(p2), F(7), F(z), F(8), C(3), C(z), C(4), and P(z) increased significantly in the OPT session compared with the placebo session. Mood state was improved after both sessions, and no significant difference was found between the two sessions.
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Bioenergy and Breast Cancer: A Report on Tumor Growth and Metastasis

As many as 80% of the 296,000 women and 2,240 men diagnosed with breast cancer in the United States will seek out complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatments. One such therapy is Healing Touch (HT), recognized by the National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health (NCCIH) as a treatment modality. Using a multiple experimental groups design, fifty-six six- to eight-week-old Balb/c mice were injected with 4T1 breast cancer tumor cells and randomly divided into intervention and positive control groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, mice in the intervention groups received HT either daily or every other day for 10 minutes by one HT practitioner. At 15 days after tumor cell injection, tumor size was measured, and metastasis was evaluated by a medical pathologist after necropsy. Tumor size did not differ significantly among the groups (, value = 0.53). The presence of metastasis did not differ across groups (chi-square(3) = 3.902, ) or when compared within an organ (liver: chi-square(3) = 2.507, ; lungs: chi-square(3) = 3.804, ; spleen: chi-square(3) = 0.595, ). However, these results did indicate a moderate, though insignificant, positive impact of HT and highlight the need for continued research into dose, length of treatment, and measurable outcomes (tumor size, metastasis) to provide evidence to suggest application for nursing care.
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Asymmetric activation of the anterior cerebral cortex in recipients of IRECA: preliminary evidence for the energetic effects of an intention-based biofield treatment modality on human neurophysiology

Neurophysiologic studies of mindfulness link the health benefits of meditation to activation of the left-anterior cerebral cortex. The similarity and functional importance of intention and attentional stance in meditative and biofield therapeutic practices suggest that modulation of recipient anterior asymmetric activation may mediate the energetic effects of intention-based biofield treatments as well. The aim of the current study was to test this hypothesis by using a treatment modality known as IRECA (Istituto di Ricerca sull'Energia Cosmica Applicata).
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Exploring the Biofield

Those of us who have been in the field of integrative health and medicine for a decade or two vividly recall the era when there was great enthusiasm and hope for therapeutic approaches that fell into the realm of complementary and alternative medicine. Healthcare clinicians and scientists worried about unsubstantiated claims and so-called therapeutic approaches—historically popular among consumers but largely untested by scientists—that might not be helpful and may even be harmful. Much has changed over the decades. The field was more controversial than it is today due to growing public and private funded research showing both what has promise and what does not. Thirty years ago, there was little to no research on acupuncture and mind-body approaches. If it had been proposed that meditation could impact neurological and immune function and literally change the structure and function of the brain, the idea would have been considered ill informed and even outlandish. Science has caught up in this case, and breakthroughs in neuroscience have well documented the impact of meditation on the brain.
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Indo-Tibetan Philosophical and Medical Systems: Perspectives on the Biofield.

The word biofield is a term that Western scientists have used to describe various aspects of energy and information fields that guide health processes. Similar concepts and descriptions of energy and information patterns exist in various cultures and have guided whole systems of medicine such as Ayurveda and Tibetan medicine. This article describes Vedic, Jain, and Tibetan philosophical and medical systems' concepts of consciousness and subtle energy and their relationships to health processes in order to foster deeper crosscultural dialogue on the nature of the biofield. Similarities and differences within the 3 traditions are noted, and suggestions for considering these concepts to extend current biofield research are discussed.
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Biofield Science: Current Physics Perspectives.

This article briefly reviews the biofield hypothesis and its scientific literature. Evidence for the existence of the biofield now exists, and current theoretical foundations are now being developed. A review of the biofield and related topics from the perspective of physical science is needed to identify a common body of knowledge and evaluate possible underlying principles of origin of the biofield. The properties of such a field could be based on electromagnetic fields, coherent states, biophotons, quantum and quantum-like processes, and ultimately the quantum vacuum. Given this evidence, we intend to inquire and discuss how the existence of the biofield challenges reductionist approaches and presents its own challenges regarding the origin and source of the biofield, the specific evidence for its existence, its relation to biology, and last but not least, how it may inform an integrated understanding of consciousness and the living universe.
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Challenges for Preclinical Investigations of Human Biofield Modalities.

Preclinical models for studying the effects of the human biofield have great potential to advance our understanding of human biofield modalities, which include external qigong, Johrei, Reiki, therapeutic touch, healing touch, polarity therapy, pranic healing, and other practices. A short history of Western biofield studies using preclinical models is presented and demonstrates numerous and consistent examples of human biofields significantly affecting biological systems both in vitro and in vivo. Methodological issues arising from these studies and practical solutions in experimental design are presented. Important questions still left unanswered with preclinical models include variable reproducibility, dosing, intentionality of the practitioner, best preclinical systems, and mechanisms. Input from the biofield practitioners in the experimental design is critical to improving experimental outcomes; however, the development of standard criteria for uniformity of practice and for inclusion of multiple practitioners is needed. Research in human biofield studies involving preclinical models promises a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the efficacy of biofield therapies and will be important in guiding clinical protocols and integrating treatments with conventional medical therapies.
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Clinical Studies of Biofield Therapies: Summary, Methodological Challenges, and Recommendations.

Biofield therapies are noninvasive therapies in which the practitioner explicitly works with a client's biofield (interacting fields of energy and information that surround living systems) to stimulate healing responses in patients. While the practice of biofield therapies has existed in Eastern and Western cultures for thousands of years, empirical research on the effectiveness of biofield therapies is still relatively nascent. In this article, we provide a summary of the state of the evidence for biofield therapies for a number of different clinical conditions. We note specific methodological issues for research in biofield therapies that need to be addressed (including practitioner-based, outcomes-based, and research design considerations), as well as provide a list of suggested next steps for biofield researchers to consider.
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Effectiveness of biofield therapy for individuals with sickle cell disease in Africa.

CONTEXT: Individuals with sickle cell disease (SCD) in Africa have to manage most of their painful episodes at home, mainly due to insufficient medical services. In the past, the research team had observed that some individuals with SCD had experienced symptomatic improvement after administration of biofield therapy. OBJECTIVE: The research team intended to evaluate the influence of repeated administration of biofield therapy on clinical outcomes for individuals with SCD in Africa. DESIGN: The research team designed a prospective, open label, nonrandomized, case-control study. SETTING: This study was performed at Le Centre de Médecine Mixte d'Anémie SS (CMMASS) in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). PARTICIPANTS: Participants were individuals with SCD who received treatments at CMMASS. INTERVENTION: Twenty participants aged 3-36 y underwent Okada purifying therapy (OPT), a form of biofield therapy, every weekday for 1 y (OPT group). OPT was administered by certified practitioners approved by the MOA International Corporation. The research team also constructed an age- and gender-matched control group (n = 20) from regular patients at the clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants in both groups received blood tests at baseline, after 6 mo, and at end of the 1-y intervention period. A follow-up survey was also conducted 33 mo after the 1-y administration of OPT. RESULTS: The OPT group showed a significant improvement in its blood data, including hemoglobin, total bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and white blood cell (WBC) count (P < .001). The control group had less improvement in hemoglobin (P < .001) and total bilirubin (P < .001) than the OPT group. Its creatinine level increased significantly (P < .001), and ALT and WBC count remained at the same level after 1 y. For the OPT group, SCD-related episodes, such as painful crises, blood transfusions, and hospitalizations, decreased more significantly than for the control group (P < .001). The follow-up survey revealed that those who continued using OPT regularly had remained in better condition for approximately 3 y after the intervention period than those who did not (P = .0014).
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A large cross-sectional, descriptive study of self-reports after biofield therapy in Japan: demography, symptomology, and circumstances of treatment administration.

BACKGROUND: Practitioners apply biofield therapy in diverse situations; however, most previously published reports investigated its efficacy in a clinical setting with a few expert practitioners administering it. OBJECTIVE: The study intended to determine the factors associated with self-reported symptom change after a single session of Okada Purifying Therapy (OPT), a form of biofield therapy, in various settings and to analyze its optimal therapeutic environments. DESIGN: This cross-sectional study used simple questionnaires. The research team trained 100 instructors of OPT to act as investigators for the study. The team recorded the initial lecture to those instructors on video, and the instructors used it to train other certified OPT practitioners in 222 locations. All investigators were volunteers. SETTINGS: The OPT sessions took place in various environments, including at MOA International Corporation's affiliated institutes, with or without clinics; at investigators' homes; and at participants' homes. PARTICIPANTS: The study involved 44 587 participants in total; all were Japanese, aged 16 or older, and suffering from physical pain, palpitation/dizziness, or anxiety/depression. INTERVENTION: The intervention involved one session of OPT lasting 30 minutes or longer administered by the volunteer practitioners. OUTCOME MEASURES: The research team evaluated the severity of symptoms before and after the intervention. The team examined (1) the self-reported change in each category of symptoms as measured after a session and (2) the adjusted odds ratio of the variables related to the outcomes.
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Effectiveness of Biofield Therapy for Patients Diagnosed With Fibromyalgia.

Context • Fibromyalgia (FM) is a disorder with an unknown etiology; symptoms include physical and psychological stress, widespread chronic pain, insomnia, and depression. Mind-body medicine and aerobic exercise have shown positive effects for symptom control. Several studies have reported positive effects for biofield therapy for FM, but when other studies have compared the treatment with a sham control, they have not found those beneficial effects. Objective • The study intended to examine the effects of a biofield therapy called Okada purifying therapy on patients' FM symptoms. Design • An open-label, self-controlled study was conducted with 2 groups of FM patients. Setting • The study was conducted at an integrative medicine clinic in Portugal. Participants • Twelve patients, aged 25 to 59 y, with symptoms of FM for the 3 mo before the study, participated. Participants agreed not to receive any new treatment other than the intervention throughout the study as a condition for participation. Intervention • Participants received 50 min of biofield therapy 2 ×/wk for 3 mo, either during the first half of the 6-mo study for group A or the second half for group B. The second half of the study was designated as a sham control for group A, and the first half of the study was designated as a sham control for group B. Outcome Measures • Measures included the Beck depression inventory (BDI), the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ), the tender point index (TPI), and changes in the dosage of prescribed medication. Results • A significant change was observed for scores in the FIQ (P = .027), BDI (P = .027), and TPI (P = .027) in the second group of patients who received the intervention in the second half of the 6-mo study. Seven of 11 participants taking prescribed medications reduced their dosage. Conclusion • Biofield therapy may help reduce symptoms of depression, chronic widespread pain, and tenderness among patients suffering from FM. Larger studies with rigorous designs are required for further accurate evaluation.
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Barriers to the Entry of Biofield Healing Into "Mainstream" Healthcare.

In this article, we describe barriers to the entry of biofield healing into mainstream contemporary science and clinical practice. We focus on obstacles that arise from the social nature of the scientific enterprise, an aspect of science highlighted by the influential work of Thomas Kuhn (1922-1996), one of the most important- and controversial-philosophers of science in the 20th century. Kuhn analyzed science and its revolutionary changes in terms of the dynamics within scientific communities. Kuhn's approach helps us understand unconventional medical theories and practices such as biofield healing. For many years, these were called "complementary and alternative medicine" (CAM). However, because most people use nonmainstream approaches in conjunction with conventional treatments, the National Institutes of Health and many practitioners now prefer "Complementary and Integrative Medicine" (CIM) where integrative implies "bringing conventional and complementary approaches together in a coordinated way."(1) Biofield healing fits the integrative model well, provides a novel approach to therapeutic intervention, and is developing in a manner that can integrate with current medical science in simple ways. Yet, it still remains outside the conventional framework because of its conceptual bases, which contrast sharply with conventional assumptions regarding the nature of reality.
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An Integrative Review of Scientific Evidence for Reconnective Healing

Biofield therapies offer a novel, non-invasive approach to treating chronic diseases based on assessing and adjusting an individual's physiological and emotional responses through their bio-energetic field. Reconnective Healing™ (RH) is defined as: “…not just energy healing, but instead a more comprehensive spectrum of healing composed of energy, light, and information.”
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Evaluation of Biofield Modality on Viral Load of Hepatitis B and C Viruses

Nowadays, hepatitis is a major challenge for clinical research, regulatory bodies, and clinicians who are trying to assess the more effectiveness of antiviral therapy against patients. Viral load count is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of hepatitis. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield modality on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in terms of viral load as surrogate marker.
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The Effects of Oscillatory Biofield Therapy on Pain and Functional Limitations Associated with Carpal Tunnel Syndrome: Randomized, Placebo-Controlled, Double-Blind Study

Biofield treatments have been used for pain control in patients with cancer and chronic pain. However, research on the effect of biofield treatment on specific somatic disorders is lacking. This study intends to investigate the effect of oscillating biofield therapy (OBFT) on symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.
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Biofield Therapies and Cancer-Related Symptoms: A Review

Patients with cancer can experience several treatment-related symptoms, and conventional care focuses primarily on cure and survival without a holistic approach to disease. Subsequently, an increasing number of patients are accustomed to complementary modalities to improve wellbeing. Biofield therapies (BTs) are complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modalities based on the philosophy that humans have an energetic dimension. Physical and psychological symptoms may cause imbalance, and BTs are believed to balance disturbance in the energy field. This article provides a study review of the main BTs (i.e., therapeutic touch, healing touch, and Reiki) in the treatment of cancer-related symptoms. Although BTs are among the most ancient healing practices, data on their effectiveness are poor and additional multicenter research with larger samples are necessary. BTs may eventually become an autonomous field of nursing activity and allow professionals to build a relationship with the patient, thereby improving motivation. The idea that this method can be self-managed and may effectively reduce pain for patients with cancer can improve satisfaction challenges experienced by the current healthcare system.
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Nontouch Biofield Therapy: A Systematic Review of Human Randomized Controlled Trials Reporting Use of Only Nonphysical Contact Treatment

This review was designed to assess the quality and review the outcomes of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of biofield therapies (external qigong, Healing Touch, Johrei, Reiki, and Therapeutic Touch) that report using only nonphysical touch forms of treatment. RCTs of nonphysical contact biofield therapies have the potential to contribute to an evidence base for health-promoting effects mediated through mechanisms outside the present understanding of biomedicine.
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Decreased Cortisol and Pain in Breast Cancer: Biofield Therapy Potential

Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death among women of all races. Pain is a common symptom associated with cancer; 75–90% of cancer patients experience pain during their illness and up to 50% of that pain is undertreated. Unrelieved pain leads to increased levels of the stress hormone cortisol. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of bioenergy on fecal cortisol levels for mice injected with murine mammary carcinoma 4T1 in two separate pilot studies. Using a multiple experimental group design, six to eight week old female BALB/c mice were injected with tumor and randomly assigned, in groups of 10, to daily treatment, every other day treatment, and no treatment groups. Five days after tumor cell injection, bioenergy interventions were begun for a period of ten consecutive days. Fecal samples were collected for each study and ELISA analysis was conducted at the end of both studies. For both studies, cortisol levels were decreased in the every other day treatment groups but remained high in the no treatment groups. Future studies utilizing bioenergy therapies on cortisol levels in a murine breast cancer model can begin to describe pain outcomes and therapeutic dose.
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Effects of Biofield Therapy on Calcium Release in Immortalized Mouse Keratinocyte HaCaT Cells

Observe the response on the release of calcium into mouse keratinocyte HaCaT cells subjected to biofield therapy (BT) through a pranic healing technique. Design: This was a pilot experimental study. Settings/location: The study was conducted in a laboratory at Simon Bolivar University. Subjects: Mouse keratinocyte HaCaT cells. Interventions: The intervention consisted of a 15-minute biofield therapy using a pranic healing technique. Outcome measures: Cells were loaded with 5 μM calcium indicator Fura 2-AM to monitor changes in intracellular calcium concentration. Cell population was separated into two groups: a control group where cells received no stimulation and the other experimental group where pranic healing was applied. Results: The cells that were treated with pranic healing showed a significant increase in intracellular calcium concentration as compared with untreated cells. Such increase in calcium concentration is consistent with the depletion of intracellular stores. By the action of Thapsigargin (TG) peak, calcium release is equivalent to cells exposed to pranic healing in comparison to control cells. One possible explanation for this observed result is that store of intracellular calcium had been stimulated by pranic healing and hence the resulting drain is lower. These results allow us to infer that pranic healing has an action on intracellular calcium storage but does not allow us to clarify how calcium has been stimulated.
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In Vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Cancer Biomarkers Involved in Endometrial and Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

Increasing cancer rates particularly in the developed world are associated with related lifestyle and environmental exposures. Combined immunotherapy and targeted therapies are the main treatment approaches in advanced and recurrent cancer. An alternate approach, energy medicine is increasingly used in life threatening problems to promote human wellness. This study aimed to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on cancer biomarkers involved in human endometrium and prostate cancer cell lines. Each cancer cell lines were taken in two sealed tubes i.e. one tube was considered as control and another tube was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment, referred as treated. Control and treated samples were studied for the determination of cancer biomarkers such as multifunctional cytokines viz. interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), prostate specific antigen (PSA), and free prostate specific antigen (FPSA) concentrations using ELISA assay on day 10. Experimental results showed a significant reduction of IL-6 level in endometrium (12%) and prostate (98.8%) cancer cell lines while a significant increase was observed in TNF-α level in endometrium (385%) and prostate (89.8%) cancer cell lines as compared to control. No alteration of PSA level was observed in biofield treated endometrium and prostate cell line. Similarly, no alterations were evident in IL-2R and FPSA levels in endometrium and prostate cell lines after biofield treatment as compared to control. In conclusion, results suggest that biofield treatment has shown significant alterations in the level of cytokines (IL-6 and TNF-α) in both endometrium and prostate cancer cell lines.
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Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Pseudomonas Fluorescens after Biofield Treatment

Global emergence of Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) displays a mechanism of resistance to all existing antimicrobials. Due to its strong ability to acquire resistance, there is a need of some alternative treatment strategy. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of P. fluorescens. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC-A sample was revived and divided into two groups (Gr) i.e. Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, ATCC-B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Gr.II and III were given biofield treatment and were measured by MicroScan Walk-Away® system before and after treatment. Parameters studied in experiment were antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number of both control and treatment groups using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Experimental results showed antimicrobials such as cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, tetracycline, and tobramycin showed altered sensitivity and MIC values in treated group as compared to control. Biochemical reactions showed positive reaction in malonate, melibiose, nitrate, galactosidase, ornithine, raffinose, sorbitol, sucrose, tobramycin and Voges-Proskauer in Gr.II. Arabinose, colistin, glucose, and rhaminose also showed positive reactions in Gr.II on day 10 while arginine and cetrimide showed negative reaction in Gr.III as compared to control. Biochemical tests results revealed a change in biotype number in Gr.II (34101173, day 5), (77103177, a very rare biotype on day 10) and Gr.III (40000043) as compared to control (02041722). Organism was identified as Enterobacter cloacae (GrII, day 10) and Vibrio fluvialis (Gr.III, day 10) with respect to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment made significant alteration in sensitivity pattern, MIC values, and biotype number of P. fluorescens.
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Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions, and Genotypic Pattern of Biofield Treated Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Introduction: Complementary and alternative medicine such as biofield energy therapies are highly popular in biomedical health care. The study evaluates the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) to evaluate its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Methods: P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to biofield treatment and analyzed for antibiogram, biochemical reactions, and biotype number using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system on day 10. The treated sample was evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing to establish the phylogenetic relationship, the epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics. Results: Data showed altered sensitivity pattern in antibiotic cefotaxime from intermediate to decreased β-lactamases activity, with four-fold decreased minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), i.e. 32 to ≤8 µg/mL as compared to control. Similarly, cefotetan and extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL-b Scrn) showed decrease in MIC values as compared to the control group. Nitrate reported for negative biochemical reaction i.e. positive (+) to negative (-) after biofield treatment on P. aeruginosa. The biotyping showed a change in biotype number (02063722) as compared to the control (02063726), without altering the microorganism. RAPD analysis showed an average range of 30 to 50% of polymorphism, while 16S rDNA sequencing analyzed treated sample as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GenBank Accession Number: EU090892) with 99% identity of gene sequencing data. Conclusion: These results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield energy treatment on P. aeruginosa has an impact to alter the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and MIC values, thus it can be used as an alternate integrative approach of energy medicine in near future.
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Mind–Body Therapies in Individuals With Dementia: An Integrative Review

Mind–body therapies frequently derive from Eastern philosophies and are becoming increasingly popular. These therapies, such as meditation, yoga, tai chi, qigong, biofield therapies, and guided imagery, have many reported benefits for improving symptoms and physiological measures associated with various chronic diseases. However, clinical research data concerning the effectiveness of these practices in individuals with dementia have not been evaluated using a synthesis approach. Thus, an integrative review was conducted to evaluate studies examining the efficacy of mind–body therapies as supportive care modalities for management of symptoms experienced by individuals with dementia. Findings from the studies reviewed support the clinical efficacy of mind–body practices in improving behavioral and psychological symptoms exhibited by individuals with dementia.
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Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies as Symptom Management Strategies for the Late Effects of Breast Cancer Treatment

Advancements in breast cancer treatment continue to improve the likelihood of survival. The increase in survival has come at a cost, however; the late effects of breast cancer treatment have remained a constant reminder to women of what they have endured and require holistic nursing’s attention. One area of nursing practice that might improve the condition of breast cancer survivors once their treatment has ended is complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) therapies. To provide guidance to nurses working with breast cancer survivors, a focused review of the literature exploring the symptomatology and prevalence of breast cancer’s late effects as well as the use of CAM therapies to improve those effects is presented. Evidence suggests that CAM therapies have sometimes been incorporated into symptom management strategies currently employed; however, the evidential claims as a whole have been generally inconclusive, especially for complete resolution of the late effects. Regardless, a number of studies demonstrate a reduction of negative symptoms experienced with few to no side effects of CAM therapies.
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Mental Health Wellness and Biofield Therapies: An Integrative Review

Biofield therapies such as Healing Touch and Reiki increase relaxation, decrease anxiety and stress, and improve mood. Understanding the efficacy of these therapies in terms of mental health wellness is important for nurses interested in complementary and integrative care. The goal of the present integrative review was to investigate the state of knowledge regarding biofield therapies and the impact on anxiety, mood, and mental health wellness. Electronic databases were searched for articles available in English and published from 2014 to 2016. Biofield therapies show safety and promise in reducing anxiety, improving mood, and cultivating mental health and wellness.
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Real versus sham proximal biofield therapy in the treatment of warts of the hands and feet in adults: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (MAGNETIK study)

Despite the lack of scientific studies on biofield therapies, they are widely acclaimed by patients. The mechanisms of action are not explained by current allopathic medical approaches. Warts are common and contagious viral lesions that may be refractory to standard dermatologic treatments such as cryotherapy, laser therapy, and keratolytic ointments. Biofield therapies are efficient in various pathologies. Their ability to treat warts has never been demonstrated in a scientific study with a robust methodology. Patients with refractory warts often place their trust in these alternative therapies because of the poor results obtained from traditional medicine. We propose a prospective, randomized, single-blind, assessor-blind trial to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of warts by biofield therapy.
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In Vitro Effects of Biofield Energy Treated Vitamin D3 Supplementation on Bone Formation by Osteoblasts Cells

Various bone disorders including fractures, significant pain and height loss, disability to stand up, and walk occurs due to insufficient level of vitamin D and calcium in the body. Both plays an important role to improve the patients' quality of life with respect to bone disorders. The present experimental analysis designed to explore the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on various bone health parameters such as alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization. Both the test items (TI) i.e. vitamin D3 and DMEM medium were divided into two parts. Each sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Sakina Aleemah Ansari and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Cell viability using MTT assay showed that cell viability was more than 79% with safe and nontoxic profile on MG-63 cell line. The level of ALP was significantly increased by 119% (at 50 µg/mL), 161.5% (at 1 µg/mL), and 252.3% (at 50 µg/mL) in UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. Collagen level was significantly increased by 81% (at 10 µg/mL), 117.9% (at 1 µg/mL), and 134.2% (at 0.1 µg/mL) in UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. In addition, the percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 235.2% at 100 µg/mL in UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 152.7% and 92.6% at 0.1 and 1 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 158% at 1 µg/mL as compared with the untreated group. Overall, the experimental data suggested that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role in the promotion and maintenance of strong and healthy bones, which improve quality of life. Biofield Energy Treatment might also regulates the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in wide range of bone disorders along with wide range of adverse health conditions, comprising cancer and certain autoimmune diseases.
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Regulation of Bone Health Parameters in MG-63 Cell Line After Treatment with Biofield Energy Treated Vitamin D3

The present experiment aimed to explore the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on various bone health parameters such as alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization. The test items (TI) i.e. vitamin D3 and DMEM medium were divided into two parts. The test items received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Matthew Charles Hornung and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of both the sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Cell viability using MTT assay showed that cell viability in tested samples was more than 88% on MG-63 cell line. ALP level was significantly increased by 273.3% (at 0.1 µg/mL), 694.1% (at 1 µg/mL), and 180% (at 0.1 µg/mL) in UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. Collagen level was significantly increased by 105.8% (at 1 µg/mL), 164.6% (at 0.1 µg/mL), and 193.8% (at 0.1 µg/mL) in UTDMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. Bone mineralization percentage was significantly increased by 238.1%, 92.7%, and 43.1% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively in UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 297.6%, 86.2%, and 66.3% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 281%, 113%, and 47% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated group. Overall, the experimental data suggested that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role in the promotion and maintenance of strong and healthy bones, which improve quality of life. Biofield Energy Treatment might also regulates the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in wide range of bone disorders along with wide range of adverse health conditions, comprising cancer and certain autoimmune diseases.
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How Tapping into “Energy” Can Trigger a Paradigm Shift in Biomedicine

The practice of medicine has changed dramatically since I started Medical School in 1975. Back then, the prevailing attitude was that exercise was for jocks, yoga and vegetarianism were the domain of hippies, and lifestyle issues were basically irrelevant to health. I was a regular at the brown bag lunches hosted by a junior faculty member who was teaching his colleagues about mindfulness meditation, his counter-culture hobby. But it was a world apart from clinical care, as there was essentially no evidence at that time that patients might also benefit.
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Biofield Therapies in Cardiovascular Disease Management: A Brief Review

Though there have been advances over the last 30 years in the therapeutic approaches to cardiovascular disease (CVD), heart disease and stroke remain the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Many medical therapies for CVD are associated with a number of side effects, often leading patients to seek non-pharmacological treatments to complement standard care. Referred to as complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), these therapies consist of a heterogeneous group of modalities used in addition to conventional health care. Biofield therapies exist within this CAM domain and involve the direction of healing energy to facilitate general health and well-being by modifying the energy field. What follows is a brief overview of three biofield therapies developed or used within the field of nursing (Therapeutic Touch, Reiki, and Healing Touch), surveying the use of these interventions for individuals with CVD, and outcomes that may impact CVD risk factors and health-related quality of life.
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The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. non- GBM control and non-GBM treatment. The GBM and non-GBM treatment groups were given Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment for the assessment of its potential. Two time-lapse (10 hours prior; 10 hours after) video microscopy experiment was performed on tumor and non-tumor brain cells in six replicate (n=6). For each microscopic field, the total cell number was counted and each cell was tracked over the 20 hours period. The potential impact of biofield treatment was assessed by comparing cell death rate in both GBM and non-GBM cells before and after biofield treatment. Results: GBM control cells showed a basal level of cell death 10 hours prior and 10 hours after the biofield treatment, and the rate remained unchanged over the 20 hours period, while in treatment group of GBM, cell death rate was exponentially increased (41%) after biofield treatment as compared to control. The treated non-GBM cultured cells showed a significant reduction (64%) of cell death rate i.e. protective effects as compared to non-GBM control.
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Therapeutic Touch Stimulates the Proliferation of Human Cells in Culture

Objectives: Our objective was to assess the effect of Therapeutic Touch (TT) on the proliferation of normal human cells in culture compared to sham and no treatment. Several proliferation techniques were used to confirm the results, and the effect of multiple 10-minute TT treatments was studied. Design: Fibroblasts, tendon cells (tenocytes), and bone cells (osteoblasts) were treated with TT, sham, or untreated for 2 weeks, and then assessed for [3H]-thymidine incorporation into the DNA, and immunocytochemical staining for proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). The number of PCNA-stained cells was also quantified. For 1 and 2 weeks, varying numbers of 10-minute TT treatments were administered to each cell type to determine whether there was a dose-dependent effect. Results: TT administered twice a week for 2 weeks significantly stimulated proliferation of fibroblasts, tenocytes, and osteoblasts in culture (p = 0.04, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively) compared to untreated control. These data were confirmed by PCNA immunocytochemistry. In the same experiments, sham healer treatment was not significantly different from the untreated cultures in any group, and was significantly less than TT treatment in fibroblast and tenocyte cultures. In 1-week studies involving the administration of multiple 10-minute TT treatments, four and five applications significantly increased [3H]-thymidine incorporation in fibroblasts and tenocytes, respectively, but not in osteoblasts. With different doses of TT for 2 weeks, two 10-minute TT treatments per week significantly stimulated proliferation in all cell types. Osteoblasts also responded to four treatments per week with a significant increase in proliferation. Additional TT treatments (five per week for 2 weeks) were not effective in eliciting increased proliferation compared to control in any cell type. Conclusions: A specific pattern of TT treatment produced a significant increase in proliferation of fibro-blasts, osteoblasts, and tenocytes in culture. Therefore, TT may affect normal cells by stimulating cell proliferation.
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Human Energy Field: A Concept Analysis

The human energy field (HEF) as a phenomenon of interest across disciplines has gained increased attention over the 20th and 21st centuries. However, a concern has arisen that there is a lack of evidence to support the concept of the HEF as a phenomenon of interest to professional nurses and nursing practice. Using Chinn and Kramer’s method of creating conceptual meaning, a concept analysis was conducted for the purpose of developing a conceptual definition of HEF. A systematic review of the literature using the CINAHL database yielded a total of 81 articles and text sources that were determined to be relevant to the concept analysis. The HEF is defined as a luminous field of energy that comprises a person, extends beyond the physical body, and is in a continuous mutual process with the environmental energy field. It is a vital energy that is a continuous whole and is recognized by its unique pattern; it is dynamic, creative, nonlinear, unpredictable, and flows in lower and higher frequencies. The balanced HEF is characterized by flow, rhythm, symmetry, and gentle vibration.
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A Systematic Review of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Interventions for the Management of Cancer-Related Fatigue

Fatigue, experienced by patients during and following cancer treatment, is a significant clinical problem. It is a prevalent and distressing symptom yet pharmacological interventions are used little and confer limited benefit for patients. However, many cancer patients use some form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), and some evidence suggests it may relieve fatigue. A systematic review was conducted to appraise the effectiveness of CAM interventions in ameliorating cancer-related fatigue. Systematic searches of biomedical, nursing, and specialist CAM databases were conducted, including Medline, Embase, and AMED. Included papers described interventions classified as CAM by the National Centre of Complementary and Alternative Medicine and evaluated through randomized controlled trial (RCT) or quasi-experimental design. Twenty studies were eligible for the review, of which 15 were RCTs. Forms of CAM interventions examined included acupuncture, massage, yoga, and relaxation training. The review identified some limited evidence suggesting hypnosis and ginseng may prevent rises in cancer-related fatigue in people undergoing treatment for cancer and acupuncture and that biofield healing may reduce cancer-related fatigue following cancer treatments. Evidence to date suggests that multivitamins are ineffective at reducing cancer-related fatigue. However, trials incorporated within the review varied greatly in quality; most were methodologically weak and at high risk of bias. Consequently, there is currently insufficient evidence to conclude with certainty the effectiveness or otherwise of CAM in reducing cancer-related fatigue. The design and methods employed in future trials of CAM should be more rigorous; increasing the strength of evidence should be a priority.
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Biofield Therapies for Symptom Management in Palliative and End-of-Life Care

Terminally ill patients experience negative symptoms at end of life (EOL) that hinder well-being and quality of life (QOL). Current intervention strategies are not always effective or feasible. A focused literature review to evaluate the use of biofield therapies (ie, Therapeutic Touch, Healing Touch, and Reiki) to manage the symptoms in EOL revealed no studies on the use these therapies, specifically in this population. Evidence from studies on relevant populations (patients with cancer, elderly patients, and patients experiencing chronic pain), which addressed the outcomes relevant to palliative and EOL care (EOLC; pain levels, changes in psychological symptoms, well-being, and QOL), supports the use of biofield therapies in relieving pain, improving QOL and well-being, and reducing psychological symptoms of stress. Further research to assess the use of biofield therapies in EOLC is clearly needed.
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Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Chlorophyll Content, Pathological Study, and Molecular Analysis of Cashew Plant

In the world scenario, India occupies a premier position contributing to about 43 per cent production of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) along with export and processing. The aim is to study the impact of biofield energy treatment on selected farms for cashew farming. The control and biofield treated farms were divided as control and treated farms, and Mr. Trivedi provided the biofield energy treatment to the treated farms. Further, the plants and fruits were analyzed for overall growth of plants, chlorophyll content, productivity, pathological study, and shelf life using UN specifications for International Trade, biophoton emission study, and DNA fingerprinting using RAPD method. No chemicals, fertilizers, were used on the treated plot, although regular practices were followed on control farms such as fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides due to the high incidence of disease and the requirement of nutritional supplements in the region. The analysis showed that biofield treated farm plants have thicker and stronger branches with more secondary and tertiary branches, flowering pattern, and canopy of plants was improved than trees of the same variety along with height of the plants, as compared with the control. The results showed that chlorophyll a and b content in biofield treated lands plants were increased by approximately 30% and 93% respectively, while total chlorophyll content by 45% as compared with the control. The pathological examination showed the presence of fungi namely Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae in control, which were absent in treated plants. Biophoton study suggested that the cashew fruits were bigger in size with high density, strength, and vitality as compared with the control. The shelf life analysis reflected that the biofield treated cashews showed sweet taste, and can be stored for longer duration due to less moisture, and altered minerals content, such as high iodine, and low p-anisidine level. RAPD analysis showed a high level of polymorphism among control and treated samples, while level of true polymorphism among V4 variety of cashew was ranges from 0 to 100%, and in V7 variety, it ranged from 25 to 91% using different set of RAPD primers. Overall, study results suggest that Mr. Trivedi's biofield energy treatment on land planted with cashew could be an alternative approach to improve the overall growth of plant, and fruit yield.
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